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The European Council Directive 2011/70/EURATOM on the "responsible and safe management of spent fuel and radioactive waste" requires EU Member States to establish a dedicated policy, including the implementation of national programmes for the management of spent fuel and radioactive waste. The report aims to inform policy makers on important issues to take into consideration in developing national programmes for the future management of spent fuel and the waste generated by fuel treatment. It describes in a concise but comprehensive way the options for spent fuel management, their present state of development, and the consequences of the choices between them.
The report discusses the challenges associated with different strategies to manage spent nuclear fuel, in respect of both open cycles and steps towards closing the nuclear fuel cycle. It integrates the conclusions on the issues raised on sustainability, safety, non-proliferation and security, economics, public involvement and on the decision-making process.