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The framework of Millennium Development Goals has led to several in-depth discussions and debates focused on review of the progress made so far and preparation of strategies for post-2015 era to ensure sustainable development all over the world. At the Rio+20 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (June 2012), the world’s governments agreed to develop a set of sustainable development goals (SDGs). Discussions at UN level have covered Science, Technology and Innovation and Intellectual Property Rights. The Expert Group meeting at UN Headquarter. The Global Network of Academies (IAP) had issued a statement on Population and Consumption in June 2012. Several Academies and other learned bodies have brought out reports on development issues including US National Academies of Science. Other relevant reports are also available.
Academies of Sciences around the world provide evidence and advice to inform their countries’ development decisions. For the past eight years, a group of academies have addressed brief statements to governments meeting at summits on global issues. These have included several of the issues related to sustainable development, such as energy, climate change, water, health and infectious disease, and resilience to disasters. This year, the Indian National Science Academy has convened a continuation of this process. During these eight years, there has been immense progress in science and technology, including in information and communications technology and natural resource extraction. However, major global challenges remain, and in important ways have grown, especially as related to continued population growth, climate change, and impact on essential natural systems. So meeting human needs, now and in the future, remains a major challenge. Work is underway in the world community to set Sustainable Development Goals for the coming years. We offer the following perspectives on how science, technology and innovation can play a role in driving sustainable development.